Reverberation in professional sound technology

Reverberation in professional sound technology

We often hear this when we are out performing events:
"Sound teacher, the sound is a little dry, please give a little reverb, thank you!"

What is reverberation?
Reverberation refers to the continuous residual sound formed by the sound source after a certain process of time delay, attenuation and reflection. Simply put, it refers to the process by which sound is reflected, attenuated, dispersed in a spatial environment, and finally reaches the ear. Different spatial environments will produce different reverberation effects on sound, such as the length of reverberation time, depth, light and dark. Reverberation is a very important part of music, which can create a more real, three-dimensional and deep musical effect for music.
The magic in music lies not only in the melody and lyrics, but also in the texture of its sound. Reverb is an integral part of music, adding depth and atmosphere to the music. Reverberation in professional sound technology is a mysterious science that can make music more magical and charming. If you also want to delve into the secret garden of music, then explore the secret garden of music - reverb in professional sound technology!

Reverb is actually a very common phenomenon in our life and work, but the "reverb" mentioned above is actually not a thing. Because in any space, "reverberation" this thing, is a fixed value, in the case of not changing the building structure, building materials and other space, sound absorption coefficient, generally speaking, "reverberation" will not change.

To measure reverberation, a phenomenon that describes the retention of sound energy in space, there is a very famous Sabine formula:
In this formula, T60 represents the time it takes for the measured sound pressure when a signal source stops making sound in space to decay 60dB in the space where the sound energy resides. Consider the simplest 6-hedral enclosed room. V is the volume of the room, S is the area =2 (length X width + length X height + width X height),@ is the average sound absorption coefficient of the room.

Someone once tested the reverb time of the world's recognized good music hall and found a certain rule. This law has given us a very important reference for the construction of modern halls. When the reverberation time is determined and the sound absorption coefficient is determined, we can adjust the volume or shape of the room according to the formula. And sometimes we also change Sabine's formula to say:
The Sabine formula after deformation allows us to choose the corresponding material according to the volume of the room to be built and the desired reverberation time, and backward derive the sound absorption coefficient that needs to be achieved.

So we can see that, whether it is polite or not, the live sound engineer can not adjust the reverb in real time, then what is the "reverb" in the mouth of the singer or musician?

In this, we need to review the history of music. Among them, the development of western music is the main one. The development of Western music originates from religious music, and the main place of religious music performance is the church. As we all know, the reverberation time of such places as churches is very long, which will more easily make people feel "surrounded" and perceive the existence of "God", that is, highlighting the divine side of religion. From a psychoacoustic point of view, such a sense of "surrounding" will make people feel safer and more comfortable.

With the development of music, the increase in the number of audiences and the increase in the area of venues, people have found that it is no longer possible to meet the audience's listening needs in empty venues without any means. The emergence of electronic sound reinforcement means can allow more audiences to "hear" the content, but at this time, there is also a problem, the sound of electronic sound reinforcement is very "unreal". This is due to the electronic sound amplification means, which actually breaks the convention and "creates" a sound source that does not exist in nature. In this created sound source, the picked up sound source is not naturally diffused, and is usually picked up at a very close distance to the example sound source.
The sound obtained in this way lacks a very important part of the information received by the human ear, that is, the sense of space, compared with the information received without the help of sound reinforcement. The sound source picked up and the sound source played back are all direct sound, and there is no spatial information, which causes the audience to be very unadaptable. To solve this problem, electronic reverberation was invented. The first application-level electronic reverberation was the Lexicon224, invented by Dr. David Gresinger in 1978.

The emergence of electronic reverberation allows people to process the picked up sound, so that the sound from the speaker, artificially added a sense of space, complete the information that the human ear is used to. Especially in the application of back listening, due to the back listening system, whether it is the use of monitoring speakers, or in-ear monitoring. The sound that singers or musicians hear is basically a direct sound, without any spatial information, which completely violates the real sound transmission characteristics of nature, musicians and singers are completely unaccustomed to hearing such sounds, which requires electronic reverberation to help them achieve a comfortable listening sense.
Reverberation model is an important factor in determining the reverberation characteristics of music. For example, hall reverb and room reverb are different reverb models.

Reverberation parameters include reverberation time, distribution of each frequency band, and reverberation intensity. These parameters affect the reverberation of the music.

The quality of music reverberation has a lot to do with the number of reverberators. Using a larger number of reverberators can create a more realistic, three-dimensional musical effect.

Reverb presets are pre-designed reverb models and parameter combinations, which can quickly and effectively achieve the expected reverberation effect of music.

The different reverberation effects of musical occasions are also affected by the arrangement of different reverberators. The arrangement of the reverberator should be in harmony with the sound environment and the rhythm of the music.

"Reverb in Professional Sound Technology: Renderers of musical Emotion?" As an indispensable part of music, reverberation is not only the processing of sound sources, but also the creation of emotional and atmospheric musical effects for music. However, the selection and setting of reverberation is also very complex, different types of music need different reverberation effects, and the excessive use of reverberation may also affect the texture of music. Therefore, in professional audio technology, how to skillfully use reverberation to render the emotion of music and create a more charming musical effect.